Are Waitangi Tribunal Reports a primary or secondary source?

The Style Guide contains guidance on bibliographies in Section V of Appendix 7.

It is suggested that sources are grouped according to type. While this will depend on the subject area, generally primary materials should be listed first, followed by secondary materials. The Style Guide sets out an example of how the sections in a bibliography might be ordered.

Waitangi Tribunal Reports are primary materials as they record the findings and views of the Tribunal. As such they should be recorded in the primary sources section of a bibliography.

Certain institutions might have particular rules about whether to incorporate Tribunal Reports under the “cases” section.  It will often makes more sense to incorporate them under their own heading – “Waitangi Tribunal Reports” – or under a heading such as “Tribunal Decisions.”


Guidance on citation of Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court decisions


This post provides supplementary guidance to section 3.5 of the Style Guide, regarding the citation of decisions of the Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court.  It also provides an explanation as to the history of citing decisions of these Courts and includes a list of the past and present minute book abbreviations. While written with lawyers in mind, this guidance will be useful to anybody using Māori Land Court and Māori Appellate Court materials.

Read More…

Location, location, location 2: pinpoints and reference tags

Question: in a footnote, does the reference tag go before or after a pinpoint in a citation? i.e.

Simpson v Attorney-General [1994] 3 NZLR 667 (CA) [Baigent’s case] at 676.


Simpson v Attorney-General [1994] 3 NZLR 667 (CA) at 676 [Baigent’s case].

The examples don’t show a reference tag being used in combination with a pinpoint.

Read More…

Location, location, location 1: footnotes and short quotes

Question: if you use a short quote in the middle of a sentence, do you footnote after the quote or at the end of the sentence?

Sometimes you may want to “use a short quote” in the middle of a sentence.  Style for short quotations (fewer than 30 words)  is covered in 1.2.2(a), but the examples there only show a quotation finishing at the end of a sentence.

Read More…

A matter of emphasis

We had an enquiry through the submission form on this blog about what to do when removing emphasis from a quotation.  The submitter wondered how to signal this in the citation.

Read More…

Māori language and macrons

This post provides some updates for section 1.1.1(c) of the Style Guide, on use of Māori language. There are some useful new resources that have become available since the Second Edition was published.

Read More…

Welcome to the NZ Law Style Guide Blog

Welcome to the new blog of the NZ Law Style Guide (Second Edition). This blog is run by the Style Guide’s editorial team.

It aims to provide posts that are helpful for Style Guide users and will include news and updates as well as resolving common queries.  We hope it will become a useful resource for academics, students, law librarians, practitioners and other users of the Style Guide.

Read More…